The Neapolitan pizza
Origin of Pizza
The pizza is a dish of Italian origin made of a spread bread dough and tomato coulis, covered with various ingredients and baked (wood, gas or electric). Pizza is one of the dishes of Italian cuisine that has settled almost everywhere in the world, often adapting to local tastes.
According to Alain Rey, the word "pizza" is "originally attested in the sense of" fouace "," slab ", from 997 in Medieval Latin, since 1535 in Neapolitan and from 1549 in Italian Florentine, specialising in its current meaning since 1570. The exact etymology of the word is difficult to determine and there are several theories about it: The origin could be the High German "Bizzo", "Piece of bread", or the Greek "pitta", "Fouace".
In the years 1850, the Bottega del Pizzajolo-which will be defined as a pizzeria a few decades later in Lexicography-becomes a place of socialization as described by Francesco de Bourcard in Usi e costumi di Napoli. In 1847, the work of Emanuele Bidèra Passegiata per Napoli e Contorni also describes the Bottega del Pizzajuolo with pizzas adorned with mozzarella (OVA bianchissime in the text) and tomatoes (OVA Rosse) and small fish.
In June 1889, the chef Raffaele Esposito, from the illustrious pizzeria of the Salita Sant'Anna di Palazzo, known today as "Pizzeria Brandi", decides to baptize "Margherita" a pizza based on mozzarella, fresh basil and tomatoes (the colours of the Italian flag: Green, white, and red), in honour of the Queen Marguerite who came to Naples on the occasion of the inauguration of the work of the Risanamento. Appreciating a notoriously plebeian local specialty, in its own way, the Queen strengthened the ties between the Kingdom of Italy and the Neapolitan people: and the pizza became, thus, even more popular among the Italians.
Since 2008, the Pizza Napoletana (not to be confused with the variety with anchovies, called in France "Neapolitan pizza", in Naples "pizza Romana" and elsewhere in Italy "pizza Napoletana" or "pizza Napoli") is a "traditional speciality guaranteed" (Specialità Tradizionale guaranteed).
- Preparation of the dough: water, salt, wheat flour type 00 (corresponding Italian denomination in France to the T55), yeast. We mix, shape balls as big as the fist and let sit at room temperature three to four hours minimum.
- Preparing the pizza: Each ball is spread out preferably by hand (as the roller crushes the air bubbles in the dough) on which the ingredients are placed;
- Baking: In a wood burning oven about 1 minute baking time at 400 °.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, medical hygienists such as Enrico De Renzi, Achille Spatuzzi, Luigi Somma… who are interested in the diet of the Neapolitan Popolo Minuto – classify pizza as one of the "food of the Poor" (Cibi dei Poveri). In 1884, Matilde Serao wrote: "The pizza enters the large category of edibles that cost a penny" and with which is constituted the lunch or dinner of the vast majority of the Neapolitan people. And, it is really its popular character (simplicity of preparation, quality of taste and low cost) that allowed the development of a phenomenon that could root and grow only in a city with a high population density and whose people suffered from extreme precariousness.
In 1789, Ferdinando Gallieni in a posthumous work, defines the pizza as a generic name of all forms of pies, focaccia and schiacciata, and to distinguish them, it lists the main: Pizza Fritta, Pizza a lo furno co ' arecheta, pizza Rognosa, Pizza Stracciata, Pizza di Cicoli, Pizza Doce, pizza di ricotta. In 1797, Father Francesco of Alberti di Villanova published in Lucca a Dizionario universale critico della lingua italiana where only the term "focaccia" is specified, and in a second edition of 1804 appears the word pizza defined as a sort of Mets or a kind of Focaccia.